When Brazilian President Cardoso signed a decree in January 1996 allowing interested parties more leeway in filing injunctions against the demarcation of indigenous areas, he was attacked on all sides. National and international NGOs and the European Parliament protested, and requested that the World Bank, the European Union and the G7 take measures. "The European Parliament should be more concerned with the problems in Bosnia, which they have not managed to solve," retorted the Brazilian Minister of Justice.Increasing concern over the environment in the past decade has incited new attempts at policy-making. International organisations and environmental NGOs play substantial roles. As the environmental issue becomes more important in international politics, vested political and economic interests are threatened.
- How did deforestation in the Brazilian Amazon become a source of international concern, and what does this mean for national Brazilian politics?
- Which national and international approaches have been adopted to address the environmental problems?
- What has the influence of a decade of environmental mobilisation been on NGOs and the World Bank?
- What are the repercussions for the study of international relations and for international environmental politics?
Ans Kolk, political scientist at the University of Amsterdam, systematically explores the dynamics of international environmental politics, looking specifically at the Brazilian Amazon.